Monday, 12 October 2009

【演講】美國總統於聯合國氣候變遷高峰會上演講全文

[以下中文翻譯及說明,與英文原稿均引用自美國政府網]

2009年9月22日,歐巴馬總統在紐約出席聯合國秘書長潘基文(BAN KI-MOON) 主持的聯合國氣候變化問題首腦會議併發表演説,以下是演説的中文譯文,由美國國務院國際資訊局(IIP)根據白宮提供的記錄稿翻譯。

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白宮 新聞秘書辦公室
即時發佈 2009年9月22日

總統在聯合國秘書長潘基文主持的氣候變化問題首腦會議上發表演説

聯合國總部 紐約州紐約市(New York, New York)

美國東部夏令時間上午09:46

歐巴馬總統:多謝諸位。早上好。我對組織這次首腦會議的聯合國秘書長以及在座的各位領導人表示感謝。今天有如此眾多的代表到會,這表明人們認識到氣候變化構成的威脅有多麼嚴重,認識到威脅迫在眉睫,也認識到威脅正日益增長。我們這一代人應對這一挑戰的行動將受到歷史的檢驗,若不能大膽、迅速、齊心協力地應對挑戰,就可能將一場無可挽救的災難留給子孫後代。

任何國家,不論大小,不論貧富,都無法擺脫氣候變化的影響。海平面的上升威脅著每一條海岸線。日益兇猛的風暴和洪水威脅著每一片大陸。日趨頻繁的乾旱和糧荒在饑饉和戰亂已然深重的地區進一步加深了災難。在面積不斷縮小的島嶼上,島上的住戶已經被迫背井離鄉,淪為氣候難民。每一個國家和各地人民的安全和穩定——我們的繁榮、我們的健康和我們的安全——危在旦夕。我們應該力挽狂瀾,但時間已所剩無幾。

然而,我們能夠力挽狂瀾。約翰‧F‧肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)説過:“我們的問題是人為的,因此可以由人類自己解決。”毫無疑問,多年以來,對於氣候威脅的嚴重性,人類的應對行動姍姍來遲,人們甚至對問題缺乏充分的認識。我自己的國家也的確如此。我們承認這一點。但新的一天已經到來。新的時代已經降臨。我可以自豪地説,美國在過去8個月裏為提倡清潔能源和降低碳污染所做的工作超過了我國歷史上任何一個時期。

我國政府正在對可再生能源進行有史以來規模最大的投資——力爭在3年內將風能和其他可再生能源的發電能力提高一倍。在全美各地,創業者正在利用貸款擔保和抵稅優惠,組裝葉輪機和太陽能板以及供混合動力車使用的電池——這些項目創造了新的就業機會和新興産業。我們還投資數十億美元減少我們的住房、建築和電器的能源浪費——同時幫助美國家庭節約能源費用。

我們已經提出了有史以來第一項旨在提高所有新出廠的汽車和卡車的燃料效率,同時降低溫室氣體污染的國策——制定的標準還將幫助消費者省錢並幫助國家節約石油。我們正在推進我國第一批近海風能項目。我們投資數十億美元用於捕獲碳污染,以使我們的燃煤工廠變得清潔。就在這個星期,我們宣佈將開始統計全國的溫室氣體污染排放量,這是有史以來的第一次。

本週晚些時候,我將同G20其他領導人共同努力,分階段取消礦物燃料補貼,以使我們能夠更好地應對氣候挑戰。我們已經看到,近期美國總體排放量的下降在某種程度上歸功於提高效率和擴大使用可再生能源的措施。

最重要的是,國會眾議院(House of Representatives)今年6月通過了一項能源和氣候法案,終於有可能使清潔能源成為美國企業可使用的有益能源,同時也可以大幅度削減溫室氣體排放。國會參議院的一個委員會已著手審議這項議案,我期待著在向前推進的過程中同有關方面商談。

由於任何一個國家都無法單獨應對這一挑戰,美國與比以往更多的盟友和夥伴接觸,以尋找解決方案。今年4月,我們在美國舉行了主要經濟體能源和氣候論壇(Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate)第一次會議,該論壇到目前為止共舉行了6次會議。在特立尼達(Trinidad),我提出了美洲國家能源和氣候合作計劃(Energy and Climate Partnership for the Americas)。我們通過世界銀行(World Bank)在發展中國家推行可再生能源項目和技術。在同從中國到巴西(Brazil),從印度(India)到墨西哥(Mexico),從非洲 (Africa)到歐洲(Europe)的各個國家和地區的關係中,我們已將氣候問題作為外交議程的首要議題。

上述舉措多管齊下,體現出美國人民及其政府的一種歷史認知。我們了解氣候威脅的嚴重性。我們決心採取行動。我們將盡到對子孫後代的義務。

然而,儘管很多國家已經採取了有魄力的行動,同時在這個問題上也有共同的意志,但我們今天來到這裡不是要慶賀成功。我們來到這裡是因為還有許多進展有待實現。我們來到這裡是因為還有很多工作有待完成。

這方面的工作並不容易。隨著哥本哈根(Copenhagen)會議的臨近,我們最艱難的道路就在前方,對此不應該抱任何幻想。在全球陷入衰退之際,我們尋求全面但必要的變革。每一個國家最緊迫的任務是重振國民經濟,讓本國人民重回工作崗位。為此,在努力為應對氣候變化尋求長遠之計的同時,我們在各國首都會面臨疑慮和困難。

然而,今天我在這裡表示,不能因為有困難而甘於現狀。不能因為存在憂慮而無所作為。我們不能因為無法面面俱到而放棄取得進展的努力。我們每一個人都必須在可能的情況下全力以赴,在不危害我們這個星球的前提下促進我們的經濟增長,我們必須共同努力。我們必須抓住時機,促使哥本哈根會議為全球抗擊氣候變化邁出重要的一大步。

我們也不能聽任過去多年來在氣候變化問題上反覆出現的意見分歧阻撓我們取得進展。當然,一個世紀以來,曾給我們的氣候造成諸多破壞的發達國家仍有義務發揮主導作用。我們將繼續這麼做——為可再生能源投資,提高能源效率,降低我們的排放量,實現我們為2020年制定的目標以及為2050年制定的長遠目標。

然而,在未來幾十年內,增長迅速的發展中國家將幾乎成為全球碳排放量所有增長部分的來源,這些國家也必須儘自己的一份力量。其中一些國家已經為發展和使用清潔能源邁出重要步伐。然而,這些國家仍需承諾在國內採取嚴厲的措施,同意堅持履行有關義務,如同發達國家也必須堅持履行自己的義務一樣。所有的溫室氣體排放大國必須採取共同行動,否則我們就無法迎接這一挑戰。我們別無選擇。

我們還必須加緊努力,使其他發展中國家,特別是最貧困和最孱弱的國家走上可持續增長的道路。這些國家不如美國或中國那樣擁有抗擊氣候變化的同樣資源,但是與問題的解決有著最直接的利害關係。因為這些國家已經承受了全球變暖造成的持續影響,如饑荒和旱災;海岸村莊的消失以及因為資源稀缺導致的衝突。這些國家的未來不再是兩者擇其一,經濟增長或者提高地球的清潔程度,因為其生存取決於兩者的共同實現。人們如果不能再收穫莊稼或得到飲水,對減輕貧困就毫無助益。

這就是為什麼我們有責任提供必要的財務和技術援助,幫助這些國家適應氣候變化造成的影響,並尋求低碳排放量的發展道路。

我們正在尋求的目標畢竟不只是一項限制溫室氣體排放的協議。我們尋求達成的協議將使所有的國家在不危害地球的情況下實現增長和提高生活水準。通過發展和推廣潔凈技術並分享我們的專門知識,我們可幫助發展中國家跨躍骯髒能源技術的階段,減少排放有害氣體。

秘書長先生,我們今天在這裡舉行會議之際,好消息是:經過這麼多年的無所作為與拒不承認以後,人們最終對我們面臨挑戰的迫切性有了普遍認識。我們知道需要做些什麼。我們知道,我們地球的未來取決於全球對永久性降低溫室氣體污染的承諾。我們知道,我們如果實施正確的規章和激勵措施,就將促使我們最優秀的科學家、工程師和企業家為改善全世界的面貌建發揮自己的創造力。在朝著這個目標前進的征途上,已經有許許多多的國家邁出了第一步。

但這條路不僅漫長,這條路也十分艱辛。為了奔赴征程,我們剩餘的時間已經不多。在這條征途上,我們每一個人都需要在遇到挫折的時候毫不氣餒,為取得任何一點進展 —— 即使是零零星星的進展——而努力奮進。因此讓我們現在就開始。因為如果我們既靈活變通又腳踏實地,如果我們堅持不懈共同努力,我們就能實現我們共同的目標:一個比我們現在看到的更安全、更清潔和更健康的世界;一個無愧於我們子孫後代的未來。

謝謝大家。(掌聲)

(完)

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President Obama’s Remarks at U.N. Climate Change Summit
Obama says “climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing”


(begin transcript)

THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of the Press Secretary
September 22, 2009

REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT AT UNITED NATIONS
SECRETARY GENERAL BAN KI-MOON'S CLIMATE CHANGE SUMMIT

United Nations Headquarters
New York, New York

9:46 A.M. EDT

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you very much. Good morning. I want to thank the Secretary General for organizing this summit, and all the leaders who are participating. That so many of us are here today is a recognition that the threat from climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing. Our generation's response to this challenge will be judged by history, for if we fail to meet it -- boldly, swiftly, and together -- we risk consigning future generations to an irreversible catastrophe.

No nation, however large or small, wealthy or poor, can escape the impact of climate change. Rising sea levels threaten every coastline. More powerful storms and floods threaten every continent. More frequent droughts and crop failures breed hunger and conflict in places where hunger and conflict already thrive. On shrinking islands, families are already being forced to flee their homes as climate refugees. The security and stability of each nation and all peoples -- our prosperity, our health, and our safety -- are in jeopardy. And the time we have to reverse this tide is running out.

And yet, we can reverse it. John F. Kennedy once observed that "Our problems are man-made, therefore they may be solved by man." It is true that for too many years, mankind has been slow to respond or even recognize the magnitude of the climate threat. It is true of my own country, as well. We recognize that. But this is a new day. It is a new era. And I am proud to say that the United States has done more to promote clean energy and reduce carbon pollution in the last eight months than at any other time in our history.

We are making our government's largest ever investment in renewable energy -- an investment aimed at doubling the generating capacity from wind and other renewable resources in three years. Across America, entrepreneurs are constructing wind turbines and solar panels and batteries for hybrid cars with the help of loan guarantees and tax credits -- projects that are creating new jobs and new industries. We're investing billions to cut energy waste in our homes, our buildings, and appliances -- helping American families save money on energy bills in the process.

We've proposed the very first national policy aimed at both increasing fuel economy and reducing greenhouse gas pollution for all new cars and trucks -- a standard that will also save consumers money and our nation oil. We're moving forward with our nation's first offshore wind energy projects. We're investing billions to capture carbon pollution so that we can clean up our coal plants. And just this week, we announced that for the first time ever, we'll begin tracking how much greenhouse gas pollution is being emitted throughout the country.

Later this week, I will work with my colleagues at the G20 to phase out fossil fuel subsidies so that we can better address our climate challenge. And already, we know that the recent drop in overall U.S. emissions is due in part to steps that promote greater efficiency and greater use of renewable energy.

Most importantly, the House of Representatives passed an energy and climate bill in June that would finally make clean energy the profitable kind of energy for American businesses and dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One committee has already acted on this bill in the Senate and I look forward to engaging with others as we move forward.

Because no one nation can meet this challenge alone, the United States has also engaged more allies and partners in finding a solution than ever before. In April, we convened the first of what have now been six meetings of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate here in the United States. In Trinidad, I proposed an Energy and Climate Partnership for the Americas. We've worked through the World Bank to promote renewable energy projects and technologies in the developing world. And we have put climate at the top of our diplomatic agenda when it comes to our relationships with countries as varied as China and Brazil; India and Mexico; from the continent of Africa to the continent of Europe.

Taken together, these steps represent a historic recognition on behalf of the American people and their government. We understand the gravity of the climate threat. We are determined to act. And we will meet our responsibility to future generations.

But though many of our nations have taken bold action and share in this determination, we did not come here to celebrate progress today. We came because there's so much more progress to be made. We came because there's so much more work to be done.

It is work that will not be easy. As we head towards Copenhagen, there should be no illusions that the hardest part of our journey is in front of us. We seek sweeping but necessary change in the midst of a global recession, where every nation's most immediate priority is reviving their economy and putting their people back to work. And so all of us will face doubts and difficulties in our own capitals as we try to reach a lasting solution to the climate challenge.

But I'm here today to say that difficulty is no excuse for complacency. Unease is no excuse for inaction. And we must not allow the perfect to become the enemy of progress. Each of us must do what we can when we can to grow our economies without endangering our planet -- and we must all do it together. We must seize the opportunity to make Copenhagen a significant step forward in the global fight against climate change.

We also cannot allow the old divisions that have characterized the climate debate for so many years to block our progress. Yes, the developed nations that caused much of the damage to our climate over the last century still have a responsibility to lead -- and that includes the United States. And we will continue to do so -- by investing in renewable energy and promoting greater efficiency and slashing our emissions to reach the targets we set for 2020 and our long-term goal for 2050.

But those rapidly growing developing nations that will produce nearly all the growth in global carbon emissions in the decades ahead must do their part, as well. Some of these nations have already made great strides with the development and deployment of clean energy. Still, they need to commit to strong measures at home and agree to stand behind those commitments just as the developed nations must stand behind their own. We cannot meet this challenge unless all the largest emitters of greenhouse gas pollution act together. There's no other way.

We must also energize our efforts to put other developing nations -- especially the poorest and most vulnerable -- on a path to sustained growth. These nations do not have the same resources to combat climate change as countries like the United States or China do, but they have the most immediate stake in a solution. For these are the nations that are already living with the unfolding effects of a warming planet -- famine, drought, disappearing coastal villages, and the conflicts that arise from scarce resources. Their future is no longer a choice between a growing economy and a cleaner planet, because their survival depends on both. It will do little good to alleviate poverty if you can no longer harvest your crops or find drinkable water.

And that is why we have a responsibility to provide the financial and technical assistance needed to help these nations adapt to the impacts of climate change and pursue low-carbon development.

What we are seeking, after all, is not simply an agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions. We seek an agreement that will allow all nations to grow and raise living standards without endangering the planet. By developing and disseminating clean technology and sharing our know-how, we can help developing nations leap-frog dirty energy technologies and reduce dangerous emissions.

Mr. Secretary, as we meet here today, the good news is that after too many years of inaction and denial, there's finally widespread recognition of the urgency of the challenge before us. We know what needs to be done. We know that our planet's future depends on a global commitment to permanently reduce greenhouse gas pollution. We know that if we put the right rules and incentives in place, we will unleash the creative power of our best scientists and engineers and entrepreneurs to build a better world. And so many nations have already taken the first step on the journey towards that goal.

But the journey is long and the journey is hard. And we don't have much time left to make that journey. It's a journey that will require each of us to persevere through setbacks, and fight for every inch of progress, even when it comes in fits and starts. So let us begin. For if we are flexible and pragmatic, if we can resolve to work tirelessly in common effort, then we will achieve our common purpose: a world that is safer, cleaner, and healthier than the one we found; and a future that is worthy of our children.

Thank you very much. (Applause.)

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